Niklas Höhne, a climate scientist and founder of the New Climate Institute in Germany, said Turkey « stands out » among the list of countries that have not yet ratified the agreement. Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legally binding emission reduction targets (as well as sanctions for non-compliance) only for developed countries, the Paris Agreement requires all countries – rich, poor, developed and developed – to do their part and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. To this end, greater flexibility is built into the Paris Agreement: it does not include language in the commitments that countries should make, countries can voluntarily set their emission targets (NDCs) and countries are not penalized if they do not meet the proposed targets. What the Paris Agreement requires, however, is monitoring, reporting, and reassessing countries` individual and collective goals over time in order to bring the world closer to the broader goals of the agreement. And the agreement stipulates that countries must announce their next set of targets every five years – unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which aimed at that target but did not contain a specific requirement to achieve it. The Paris Agreement is a historic environmental agreement adopted by almost all countries in 2015 to combat climate change and its negative impacts. The agreement aims to significantly reduce global greenhouse gas emissions in order to limit the increase in global temperature this century to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, while looking for ways to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees. The agreement contains commitments from all major emitting countries to reduce their pollution from climate change and to strengthen these commitments over time. The Compact provides an opportunity for developed countries to support developing countries in their efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change, and provides a framework for transparent monitoring, reporting and strengthening of individual and collective climate objectives of countries. Other countries would most likely give a Biden administration some time to get back on its feet, but would also like to see strong warning signs that the U.S.
has significant plans to reduce domestic emissions from cars, power plants and other sources. The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that addresses the mitigation, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions and was signed in 2016. The wording of the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 196 States Parties at the 21st Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC at Le Bourget, near Paris, in France, and adopted by consensus on 12 December 2015.   By February 2020, the 196 members of the UNFCCC had signed the agreement and 189 had become parties.  Of the seven countries that are not parties to the law, the only major emitters are Iran and Turkey. While the expanded transparency framework is universal, as is the global stocktake that takes place every 5 years, the framework is designed to provide « built-in flexibility » to distinguish the capacities of developed and developing countries. In this context, the Paris Agreement contains provisions to improve the capacity-building framework.  The Agreement takes into account the different situations of certain countries and notes in particular that the review by technical experts for each country takes into account the specific reporting capacity of that country.  The agreement also develops a transparency capacity building initiative to help developing countries put in place the institutions and procedures necessary to comply with the transparency framework.
 Recognizing that many developing countries and small island states that have contributed the least to climate change could suffer the most from its consequences, the Paris Agreement contains a plan for developed countries – and others that are « capable of doing so » – to continue to provide funds to help developing countries mitigate and increase their resilience to climate change. The agreement builds on financial commitments from the 2009 Copenhagen Accord, which aimed to increase public and private climate finance for developing countries to $100 billion a year by 2020. (To put this in perspective, global military spending in 2017 alone amounted to about $1.7 trillion, more than a third of which came from the United States.) The Copenhagen Compact also created the Green Climate Fund to help mobilize transformative financing with targeted public funds. The Paris Agreement set hope that the world would set a higher annual target by 2025 to build on the $100 billion target for 2020 and put in place mechanisms to achieve that scale. Turkey has a special beef with the Paris Agreement resulting from its decision to sign the convention as a developed country. These transparency and accountability provisions are similar to those of other international agreements. While the system does not involve financial sanctions, the requirements are aimed at easily tracking each nation`s progress and fostering a sense of global peer pressure, thus preventing any hesitation between countries considering doing so. The level of NDCs set by each country will set that country`s objectives. However, the « contributions » themselves are not binding under international law because they do not have the specificity, normative character [clarification required] or mandatory language required to create binding norms.  In addition, there will be no mechanism that requires a country to set a target in its NDC by a certain date, and no application if a set target is not achieved in an NDC.
  There will be only one « Name and Shame » system or like János Pásztor, the UN. The Under-Secretary-General for Climate Change told CBS News (USA) a « Nominate and Encourage » plan.  Given that the agreement does not foresee any consequences if countries do not comply with their obligations, such a consensus is fragile. A net of nations withdrawing from the deal could trigger the withdrawal of more governments and lead to a total collapse of the deal.  However, an agreement is not reached until it has been ratified, and Parliament essentially agrees with it. According to the UN website, of the 197 signatories, only 190 have ratified the Paris Agreement. On June 1, 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump announced that the United States would withdraw from the agreement.  According to Article 28, the earliest possible effective withdrawal date for the United States is November 4, 2020, with the agreement having entered into force in the United States on November 4, 2016. If it had chosen to withdraw from the UNFCCC, it could be notified immediately (the UNFCCC entered into force for the United States in 1994) and enter into force a year later. On August 4, 2017, the Trump administration sent an official notice to the United Nations stating that the United States intended to withdraw from the Paris Agreement as soon as it was legally allowed to do so.
 The formal resignation could not be submitted until the agreement was in force for the United States for 3 years in 2019.   The Paris Agreement has a « bottom-up » structure unlike most international environmental treaties, which are « top-down » and are characterized by internationally defined standards and objectives that must be implemented by states.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets commitment targets with the force of law, the Paris Agreement, which emphasizes consensus-building, allows for voluntary, nationally defined targets.  Specific climate goals are therefore promoted politically and are not legally linked. Only the processes that govern the preparation of reports and the consideration of these objectives are prescribed by international law. This structure is particularly noteworthy for the United States – since there are no legal mitigation or funding objectives, the agreement is considered an « executive agreement rather than a treaty. » Since the 1992 UNFCCC treaty received Senate approval, this new agreement does not need new congressional legislation to enter into force.  Paris Agreement, fully Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, also known as the Paris Climate Agreement or COP21, an international treaty, named after the city of Paris, France, where it was adopted in December 2015 and which aimed to reduce gas emissions that contribute to global warming. The Paris Agreement aimed to improve and replace the Kyoto Protocol, a previous international treaty to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It entered into force on 4 November 2016 and was signed by 194 countries and ratified from 188 to November 2020. In fact, research clearly shows that the costs of climate inaction far outweigh the costs of reducing carbon pollution. A recent study suggests that if the United States fails to meet its Paris climate goals, it could cost the economy up to $6 trillion in the coming decades.
A global failure to meet the NDCs currently set out in the agreement could reduce global GDP by more than 25% by the end of the century. At the same time, another study estimates that meeting – or even exceeding – the Paris targets through infrastructure investments in clean energy and energy efficiency could have huge global benefits – around $19 trillion. The EU and its Member States are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. .